April 6, ; Revised: June 16, ; Accepted: This open-access theme is distributed under the CC BY 4. The taxonomy of Lactuca triquetra, a scoparious subshrub of localized distribution and in generic placement, is assessed. The taxon was described in the early 19th century from Lebanon and more than years soon after also discovered on Cyprus. Referring to new molecular phylogenetic results published elsewhere, morphological characters, indoors particular of the achenes, are reconsidered. It is inferred on or after the available evidence that the diploid species represents an thing lineage, which diverged from its ancestors already in the Heart Miocene, when the Cichorieae subtribes Crepidinae and Lactucinae started diversifying.
Both molecular and morphological testimony indicate that the species holds a position mediating between mutually subtribes. The taxonomic conclusion is drawn to place the order in a new genus of its own, Astartoseris. The taxon is illustrated and a exhaustive description, distribution map and instruct ecological characterization are provided.
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Omnipresent plant species can produce frequent impacts on native communities. Impacts can be especially important as the non-natives reach high densities, producing monospecific stands where not sufficiently grows besides the non-native kind.
We propose three basic pathways by which monospecific stands of invasive tree species are formed: Different patterns can produce assort impacts through time and possibly will require different management techniques. That study aims to further our understanding of how monotypic stands of invasive species arise. We documented how monospecific stands are formed during invasion processes as a result of studying patterns of spatio-temporal origination of several monospecific stands of Douglas fir in Patagonia.
We obtained data on tree crowdedness, year of establishment, size, footage to the seed source with other related measurements for that tree species along transects on or after the original seed source year-old plantations to the edge of the monospecific stand.
We begin that these monospecific stands arose in a more complex concede than expected. Mature no 440.
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